سیاست خارجی دولت انگلستان در قبال بیداری اسلامی: مطالعه موردی مصر

نوع مقاله: روابط بین الملل

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه امام حسین علیه‌السلام

2 دانشجوی دکترای دانشگاه جامع امام حسین علیه السلام

چکیده

وقوع بیداری اسلامی در مصر و سقوط رژیم دیکتاتوری حسنی مبارک ـ‌شریک راهبردی بریتانیا و آمریکا‌ـ موجب شد تا ترتیبات سیاسی‌-‌امنیتی منطقه شمال آفریقا دست‌خوش دگرگونی و تحول شود. سرنگونی مبارک و به قدرت رسیدن جریان­ اسلام­گرای اخوان­المسلمین، مقامات انگلیس را بر آن داشت تا در سیاست­های خود در برابر مصر بازنگری و تجدیدنظر کنند. مقاله حاضر با هدف پاسخ‌گویی به پرسش کلیدی «بریتانیا در مواجهه با جنبش­های اسلامی و امواج بیداری اسلامی، چگونه آنها را در راستای اهداف ملی و سیاست­های خود مدیریت، جهت­دهی یا کنترل می‌کند؟» تألیف شده است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می­دهد که سیاست بریتانیا در قبال بیداری اسلامی مبتنی بر رویکردهای استعمارنوین، در جهت احیای دولت­های قدرتمند وابسته و پاسخ‌گو به قدرت‌های بزرگ است. به‌همین‌منظور دولت­سازی بریتانیا در کشور مصر بر سه پایه «آموزش، کادرسازی و ایجاد شبکه هم‌سو» قرار گرفته است. در گام نخست، نخبگان مصری هم‌سو با سیاست‌های انگلیس، در فرآیند یک توافق سیاسی، قدرت را در دست می­گیرند. بر این اساس در شرایط کنونی نظامیان و ارتش مصر این نقش را بر عهده دارند. در گام دوم، آموزش و بازسازی نهادهای نظامی، انتظامی و امنیتی در دستور کار قرار می­گیرد و در عمل بسترها به گونه­ای طراحی می‌شوند که مسئولیت نهادهای نظامی‌ـ‌امنیتی به دست دانش­آموختگان مراکز امنیتی بریتانیا و غرب باشد. در گام نهایی نیز، آموزش رسانه­ها، زنان و جوانان و به‌طور هم‌زمان کارآفرینی و توسعه مدنی مدنظر است تا در این راستا، علاوه بر اجرای طرح­ توسعه سیاسی‌ و اقتصادی مطلوب لندن، فضای افکار عمومی مصر به سود بریتانیا مهندسی شود. همچنین تقویت فمنیسم و توسعه خبرنگاری و تربیت سیاسی با هدف تأسیس احزاب جدید در قالب اندیشه­های سکولاریستی، با هدف مهار و تضعیف جریان‌های اسلام­گرا در مصر انجام می­گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

British Foreign Policy towards Islamic Awakening؛ Case study: Egypt

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Hosseini 1
  • Hojatollah Noori Sari 2
1 Associate Professor of Political Sciences Faculty at Imam Hossein University
2 Ph.D. student of Imam Hossian Comprehensive University
چکیده [English]

Islamic awakening in Egypt and the fall of the dictatorial regime of Husni Mubarak as a strategic partner of Britain and the United States have changed the North-African region's political-security arrangements. The overthrow of Mubarak and the taking of the government by the Muslim Brotherhood led the British authorities to review their policies towards Egypt. Therefore, this article is written to answer this key question that “How does Britain manage, direct or control the Islamic movements and Islamic awakening to protect its national goals and policies?” The results of this study show that British policy towards the Islamic awakening is based on the neo-colonial approaches that seek the revival of powerful dependent states. For this reason, the state-building by the United Kingdom in Egypt is based on two foundations of "education and networking." In the first step, the Egyptian elite, in line with the British policies, take over the power, a role which is played by the Egyptian army right now. In the second step, the training and rebuilding of military and security institutions are on the agenda. The last step is the education of the media, women and youth, and simultaneously, entrepreneurship and development. It also reinforces feminism and the development of journalism and political education within the framework of secularist ideas, which is essentially aimed at curbing the emergence of Islamist currents in Egypt.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Britain"
  • "Foreign policy"
  • "Egypt"
  • "Islamic awakening"
  • "State-Building"


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