پیامدهای آزادسازی اقتصادی بر صورت بندی نخبگان حاکم در جمهوری عربی مصر

نوع مقاله: مطالعات منطقه ای

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، جمهوری اسلامی ایران (نویسنده مسئول).

2 استادیار گروه مطالعات منطقه ای دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، جمهوری اسلامی ایران.

چکیده

آغاز تحولات عربی در سال 2011 پرتوی جدیدی را بر بحث‌های مربوط به شرایط و ملزومات بقای نظام‌های‌ سیاسی در منطقه غرب آسیا و شمال آفریقا افکند. این تحولات خط بطلانی بود بر این ایده که اقتدارگرایی پایدار در جهان عرب یک اصل عمومی است. صاحب نظران علوم سیاسی همواره سعی داشتند تا انعطاف‌پذیری نظامهای اقتدارگرا را در این منطقه با رویکردهای مختلفی ازجمله رویکرد نهادی، قدرت نیروهای سرکوب، فاکتورهای فرهنگی و در دسترس بودن رانت تبیین کنند؛ اما تحولات سال 2011 نشان داد برخی نظام‌های سیاسی خاورمیانه می‌توانند پایدار نباشند و به همین دلیل این پرسش مطرح می شود که چرا برخی نظام های سیاسی در جهان عرب – در مقایسه با سایر نظام های سیاسی در این منطقه- در سال 2011 موفق به حفظ بقای خود نشدند. برای پاسخگویی به این سوال نوشتار حاضر با بررسی سیاست‌های آزادسازی اقتصادی موسوم به انفتاح در مصر- به عنوان مطالعه موردی- به این نتیجه رسیده که اجرای سیاست های فوق در مصر منجر به ایجاد نوعی انشقاق درون ائتلاف نخبگان حاکم به ویژه بین طبقه نوظهور اقصادی (الحرس الجدید) و ارتش شد و این موضوع توانایی نظام حاکم را در سال 2011 در حفظ بقای خود به چالش کشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

the consequences of economic liberalization on ruling elite`s formation in Arab Republic of Egypt

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fahimeh Abbasi 1
  • Mohammadsadegh Koushki 2
1 Ph.D Student of Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran (Corresponding author).
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Regional Studies, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. Iran.
چکیده [English]

The start of the Arab developments in 2011 sheds new light on discussions about the conditions and requirements for the survival of political systems in the West Asian region and North Africa. These developments undermined the idea that sustained authoritarianism in the Arab world is a general principle. Political science scholars have always sought to explain the flexibility of authoritarian systems in the region through a variety of approaches including the institutional approach, the power of repressive forces, cultural factors and rent availability. But the developments in 2011 showed that some Middle Eastern political systems could not be sustainable, which is why some political systems in the Arab world failed to survive in 2011 compared to other political systems in the region. To answer this question, the present paper examines economic liberalization policies in Egypt as a case study, and concludes that the implementation of these policies in Egypt has led to a split within the ruling elite coalition, especially among the emerging economic class (new guards) and the military, which challenged the ruling regime's ability to survive in 2011.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arab Spring
  • Economic Liberalization
  • Ruling Elite
  • Emerging Economic Class
  • army
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