عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Welfare States and Prospective Challenges
Dr. Hujjatullah Ayyubi
Having its origins in the developments of the 15th and 16th centuries, state, in its modern sense, is not such an old phenomenon. States, the only institutions of legitimate control of power, were able to consolidate the foundations of their governments with the passage of time. Domestic security and protection of the state against foreign invasions were among the first mottos of nation-states.
The French revolution and the liberty-seeking revolutions of 1930s represented a new landmark for transition from autocratic states to legitimate ones.
The ratification of constitutions and establishment of legislative assemblies gave rise to a new stage of state building. Thus autocratic states turned into legal and legitimate or democratic ones.
The industrial revolution and its consequences particularly the capitalist economy made it inevitable for the state to intervene towards supporting the deprived and down- trodden classes.
Due to the demands of various classes of people and the advent of socialist thoughts and governments, states had no choice but ratify social laws, support the deprived, and pay subsidies. Thus social- service states or in other words " welfare states" came into being and the concept of state entered a new stage.
Now after almost five decades of practicing social policies and state interventions, social service states are subject to serious challenges and different crises.
The present article surveys these challenges and analyzes the last solutions proposed by researchers in this field.